The Vultee A-31 Vengeance was an American dive bomber of World War II, built by Vultee Aircraft. The Vengeance was not used operationally by the United States, but was operated as a front-line aircraft by the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, and the Indian Air Force in Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific.
Following the introduction of Lend-Lease, the USAAF ordered 300 aircraft for the UK as the A-31, which were designated either Vengeance Mk IA (Northrop) or Vengeance Mk III (Vultee) by the RAF Northrop built some of the aircraft due to Vultee's inadequate production capacity. Northrop's examples were given the RAF designation Vengeance Mk I, while Vultee's examples were designated Vengeance Mk II.
In the Far East, four RAF, two Indian and five Australian squadrons operated the Vengeance resourcefully under difficult conditions, during the period from May 1942 to July 1944. The Indian-based squadrons saw action in Burma, while the Australians made perilous attacks on New Guinea and other islands until B-24 Liberators could take over the job at higher altitude.